Bones are composed of several different types of tissue, including:
- Osseous (bony) tissue: This is the hard, dense tissue that forms the outer layer of bones and gives them their strength. It is made up of cells called osteoblasts and osteocytes, as well as the mineral matrix they produce, which is mostly made of calcium and phosphorus.
- Cartilage: This is a type of connective tissue that covers the ends of bones and helps to cushion them during movement. It is made up of cells called chondrocytes and a gel-like matrix called chondrin.
- Periosteum: This is a thin layer of connective tissue that surrounds the bones, which contains blood vessels and nerves.
- Endosteum: This is a thin layer of connective tissue that lines the inner surface of bones.
Bone marrow is the soft, spongy tissue that fills the inside of some bones. It is the site of production of blood cells (red and white blood cells, platelets) in the body. It is composed of Hematopoietic tissue, which produces blood cells, and adipose tissue, which stores fat.
There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow and yellow marrow. Red marrow is responsible for the production of blood cells, while yellow marrow is mostly composed of fat and is used for energy storage. Bone marrow is essential for the body’s immune system and for maintaining a healthy blood supply.